Life in the Morung: A chakhesang Naga Oral Tradition
Aneile Puro

Morung or Dormitory life of the Nagas would indicate a uniqueness of its own with a marked difference of culture, social
etiquettes and expectations, behavioural patterns, cultural attitudes
and values, from that of any other people. In general, for ancestral
Nagas, the Morung or Dormitory is an important social and
educational centre of learning in a kind of play-way method, for
young boys and girls. It is part and parcel of Naga way of life. This
paper aims to study the oral tradition of the Chakhesang Naga tribe.
Keywords: Nagas, Dormitory, Folklore, Oral Tradition, Identity.

The Issue of Human Rights in the Novel The God of Small Things
Neetu Gupta

The issue of Human Rights in the novel The God of Small
Things. The issue of "Human Rights" is politicized and cannot be
realistically said to exist only to protect the weaker sections of
society. It can also be co-opted as an instrument through which the
politics of power is advanced. Despite demand for protecting human
rights becoming increasingly widespread in the present time, the
omnipresence of human rights rhetoric is not very clear. The
meaning and the issue of human rights has become both confused
and contested. Sensitive narratives have explored through
representation of the lives of people as to how the rights of these
people have been abused and denied. These people are often treated
as 'outsiders' even by their own family. In fact, the worst victims
are women and children. Women's expression and articulation has
always been timid and reserved. The narrative of Arundhati Roy's
The God of Small Things not only problematises but also lays bare
the atrocities suffered by women in India where they are often denied
of their rights to education, property and residence in their own
parental homes. Ammu in the referred narrative becomes the
necessary cultural image that human rights must address. As
projected in the novel, the Syrian Christian family reflects the
cultural violence and systemic flaws inherent in Indian society. This
paper is an attempt to analyze The God of Small Things as a cultural
text that not only points to the violence and human rights abuse in
society but also posits the narrator as a 'knowing subaltern' who
recognizes oppression and participates in resistance.
Keywords: Ideology, patriarchy, subaltern, third world feminism.

Policy Perspective on Universalisation of Secondary Education in India : a Developmental Sketch
Mrs. Runjun Kalita

Secondary education plays a very important role in the socioeconomic,
scientific and technological development of the nation.
A child's future can depend a lot on the type of education she/he
receives at the secondary level. Apart from grounding the roots of
education of a child, secondary education can be an instrument for
shaping and directing the child to a bright future. This stage of
education serves to move on higher secondary stage as well as to
provide generic competencies that cut across various domains of
knowledge as well as skills. In India, secondary education and
secondary school marks the completion of formal education for
the vast majority of students. Even the students who prepare for
higher education cannot take the advantage of higher education
without receiving quality secondary education. But in India
secondary education suffers from various problems like low access,
low participation, gender disparity, lack of trained teacher with low
quality and low equity etc. This paper aims to examine the policy
debate on universalisation of secondary education (USE) in India
and highlights some of the basic issues affects the progress and
achievement of universalisation of secondary education since
introduction of planned development of the country.
Key words: Secondary education, Universalisation, PolicyPerspective.

The Status of Naga Women with Special Reference to the Phom Naga Tribe
K Limei Phom

Like all Naga tribes in Nagaland, the Phom tribe had their
own unique traditional practices, custom and the role assigned for
women in the society. During the olden days, the Yow- Bang i.e
Morung, acted as the center of educational institutions among the
young boys and girls. It is also a place where both the males and
the females choose their life partner. The Naga society is patriarchal
society. Men play dominant role in all its socio-political and cultural
spheres. It is being inferred that, it was because of the prevalence
of the head-hunting culture; as men were physically strong, they
took part in the head hunting raid and also in the over-all village
governance. Women have no place in the council sitting even today
according to the Phom Naga customary law because they are
regarded as Nyuha Phenlak i.e leaves of branches. Despite all these
traditional barriers imposed on the women, women too enjoy
important role and privileges assigned especially for them.
According to Phom tradition community fishing and log drum
pulling ceremonies should start with women without which the
ceremony cannot start or begin. These are some of the privileges
which were especially meant for women in the Phom society which
is still practiced even today. The Phom Nagas have the culture where
young man gives gifts to the girls' family. She has no say with
regard to property rights or any matters related to property within
the family circle or in the society and especially after her marriage,
she has no rights to claim to or interfere with the property rights of
the family. She is considered like a movable property. So, many
women still today suffer and are mentally abused through traditional
customs. However, with the waves of Christianity and setting up of
educational institutions in Phom areas, there was a great change of
the people in every walk of life. People began to realize the
importance of education and the values and goals of life. The apex
body of women was also formed with the consultative meeting
among the educated women folk of Phom areas. Equality between
men and women should be based on their own capacity and
potentialities. Therefore, for the wholesome growth and
development of our nation the education and empowerment of our
women folk must be given top priority. Women empowerment is
the need of the hour at every level of the society, be it educational,
economical, social or political areas of Phom women and Naga
women as a whole.
Keywords : Patriarchal society, family, Yow-Bang, tradition, Phom
women, Naga.

Nativism in the West and East : A study
Jalin Prakash Chetia

Nativism is a well accepted modern trend in oriental and
occidental literature. Its counterpart nomenclature in most of
Indian literatures is 'desibad', Now this 'ism' stirs minds and
thinkings of litteratures and literary critics of various parts of the
world in a meaningful way. Most of the universities have now
included this as a branch of critical study in their syllabus. This
paper aims to study origin, development, nature and scope of
western nativism and how texts can be studied from this angle.
Keywords : Nativism, Desivad, Literature, Culture,

Art of Characterisation in Madhava Kandali "Ramayana' and Krittibasi 'Ramayana' : A Comparative Study
Lavita Dutta

Most of the renditions of 'Ramayana' into provincial
languages of India are based on Balmiki's 'Ramayana' composed
in Sanskrit. Madhab Kandali of Assam in middle part of the 14th
century and Krittibas of Bengal in middle part of the 15th century
had translated, transcreated, Balmiki Ramayana into their
respective mother tongues. These two versions of Ramayana
occupied a prominent place in the history of vernacular literature
since both these poets have not made word to word translation,
they have risen above it, adapted it to their times, to their
surroundings, to their society; above all to the taste of their
respective people. In every sphere, may it be in the use of
language employment of perspectives or art of characterisation
they have shown their ingenuity, their originality. Their characters
in their thinkings and feelings never copy Balmiki's characters,
they are of their own, rise from their respective societies, speak
the mind of their societies, of their people. There lies the
greatness of these two writers, this paper aims to make a
comparative study of the art of characterisation resorted to by
Madhav Kandali and Krittibas.
Key words : Ramayana, Madhava Kandoli, Krittibas,

Characteristics of Moran Tribe in Assam : An Analytical Study
Minamuddin Ahmed

Among all the indigenous tribes in Assam Morans habitating
in upper Assam is prominent one. Once upon a time they were
independent and were ruled by their king. But in the first half of
the thirteenth century when the Tai-Ahoms under their leader
sukapha invaded the area, the Marans made truce by offering one
of their princes to the king and surrendering their kingdom. They
had contributed a lot to build a greater Assam. However, later,
they were betrayed by successive Ahom kings, an act which
forced them to launch a mass mutiny causing downfall of a
powerful royal dynasty. Maran is such a tribe who base selfrespect
and sense of fierce independence Distinct features of the
culture of Maran community remaining unadulated since hoary
past have eariched greater Assamese art, artifact and culture. This
paper aims to study the social and cultural life of this tribe.
Keywords : Moran, Ahom, Tai culture, Art.

Forest Related Bangla Novels ‘Jaljangal’ and the Novelist Monoj Bose
Gautam Deb

Two of the Novels ‘Jaljangal’ (1951) and ‘Ban kete Basat’
(1961) of Monoj Basu (1901-1981) established the novelist as
one of the most eminent and most skilful writers of novels on
forest and environment. These two aforesaid novels depict how
the people living in and around forests think and feel, how they
have accepted their life, how they earn their livelihood depending
on forest and also how they find a spiritual affinity existing
between them and the forest. Though all these things have trickled
down the history yet the novelist has in his writings, captured
different forms, different colours, different shades and cultures,
sub-cultures of forest and forest life. This paper aims to study
how the habitation in forests, fresh settlements, life of forest
dwellers and their folk beliefs and folk culture and problems
arising out of modernity in life resulting in associated problems
such as conflict between man and animal and continuity their
living has been depicted in ‘Jaljangal’.

Rohini of Bankim Chandra and Binodini of Rabindra Nath : An Analytical Study
Nipan Das

As social novels Bankimchandra Chatterjee's (1838 – 1894)
'Krishnakantar Will' (1878) and Rabindranath Tagore's (1861 –
1941) "Chokher Bali' have striking similarities. Social problems
discussed in both these novels are almost same, so do we find
in their craftsmanship. In their plot constructions we find love
triangle. In 'Kirshnakanter Will,' the protagonist Gobindalal is
passionate, lacks control on his feelings of sexual desire. Though
his wife Bhramar is quite loyal to him yet he is attracted towards
Rohini, the other woman. As a result, frequent domestic quarrel
takes place. In the 'Chokher Bali' we too encounter such a
peculiar love triangle where Mahendra desires Binodini and
Binodini longs for Bihari though Bihari turns down the love
proposal of Binodini. In both the novels, protagonists miserably
fail to maintain sexual austerity that leads to domestic violence
inviting disequilibrium to the plot. In these two discussed novels
aberrant behaviour of Rohini and Binodini have complicated
respective plots leading towards conflict. Though both these female
characters exhibit a lot of pinilarities yet which this paper aims to
a discerving reader they have subtle differences to point out.
Key words : Love-triangle, Sexual desire, Plot.

Reader's Response to Anurupa Biswas's "They Say There are Some Trees"
Mamata Chakarabarty

Anurupa Biswas, a celebrate poet in Bangali language,
published her first authology of poems in the year 1978 and it
carried the litle. 'They say there are some Trees'. Her poems
mostly depict the land and the labour class besides expressing
human love and concern about nature. She has taken the 'Duran
flower' blooming along the roadsides of the Barak Valley as
symbol of love and good will. Her later poems are replete in
political consciousness in which we hear echoes protest and
rebellion. To say, in her poetry we find concerns aout nature,
society and future of humanity. But she is not pessimistic, she is
rather optimistic in her nigian. This paper aims to make a critical
study of Anurupa Biswas a lesser known poet.
Keywords : nature, protest, love.

Bibar : A Document of Sexual Perversion
Dr. Rabindra Roy

The novel 'Bibar' of Samaresh echoes depravity of colonial
mind, and too, protest against victoriah values and morality. In a
very subtle way he constructs his world vision over existential
reality of huaran life. The core of values depicted in the novel
is based on freedom of will. The protagonist of the novel feels
encircled by different layers both of self and society such as
sexual desires... family problems. These desires and drives compel
a person to live a life of slave, depriving him of freedom of will.
Second world war during the 1940s and ... Bangladesh had caused
perversion of hurman values climaxing to sexual depravity.
Characters, both male and female, except Anusuya, mother of the
snohaponi seem as if were victims of these corrupt values, as if
all of then were victims of this sexual perversion. The novel
depicts these erosion of values, sexual depravity in its extreme
from in 1960s that had started from 1940's. The paper aims to
discuss the values and why and how its erosion took place.
Keywords : Pervertion, Femine, Bibar, Values, World War.

Life and Philosophy of Songs and Philosophy of Saint Lalan : An Analytical Study
Gouri Bhattacharya

Lalan Fakir, a sufi saint of Bengal, is well known in the
eastern part of India for his contribution to enriching folk lore
and folk life for his baul songs. Born in Kustia district, now in
Bangaladesh, in the 18th country to Hindu parents, later adopted
by a Muslim family, Lalan Fakir composed a number of
devotional numbers having with deep philosophical meaning. The
musical instrument baul introduced by him is still very popular
in rural Bengal. HIs songs very often uplift the depressed souls
and give them courage and strength to face bravely misfortunes
of life. These sons too ask people to nise above dagiratism This
paper aims to make an analytical study of songs and philosophy
of saint Lalan.
Key Words : Philosophy, Donatism, culture, Baul song.

Nature Conscious in Atin Bandhopadhyaya's 'On the Footsteps of Blue-necked Bird' and People’s House : An Analytical Study
Subhankar Das

Since the advent of human race there is an umbilical relation
between man and nature. Nature does not mean only trees and
plants, hills and forests, springs and rivers etc., for it means the
whole universe constituted of five elements. This nature-world
is intimately associated with literature, as without the former the
latter cannot be conceived of. Atin Bondopadhyaya, a celebrated
Bengali writter, in his novels has depicted nature through various
mataphors. Nature depicted in his novel is the result of his direct
and felt experience. As we know his adolescent period was spent
in the lap of nature, in the erstwhile East Bengal. He has travelled
across the globe as a coal boy in a ship. He has seen the beautiful
nature on sea shores, experienced its soothing effect. He, in his
novel 'On the Footsteps of Blue-necked Bird' and people’s house