Participation of Women in Agricultural Activities: A Village Level Study in Assam

Alpana Baruah 

Women are the backbase of agricultural workforce. They play an important role in agriculture, both as female family labour and hired labour. But it is most unfortunate that their role in agriculture has been underestimated and quite often overlooked altogether and they remain as ‘invisible workers’ on the farm. Therefore, efforts have been made in this study to analyse the works performed by farm women in agriculture. The study was conducted in Burha Mayong village of Morigaon district in Assam. The village was selected purposively as the mainstay of many of the villagers depend on agriculture. Out of 127 households, a sample of 50 women who are involved in farm activities were selected randomly from 50 households (40% of the total households). Structured interview schedule has been used for collection of data from sample respondents and analysed by using SPSS(16.0) version. The factors affecting women participation in farm activities were also identified in the study.​

​​Key Words: Agriculture, Women, Participation, Farm, Labour.

​Anne Sexton And Her Poetry: Blurring The Boundaries Between Private And Public

Anuradha Mishra 

Privacy traditionally means something that separates the home and family from the society at large giving rise to the dichotomy of private and public. It divides the world in to two parts where the public realm of work belongs to the man and the private sphere of home belongs to the woman. This confinement in to a particular mould is problematic for a woman in general and it becomes more suffocating for an artist. This paper aims at representing an altered meaning of privacy in Anne Sexton’s poetry which makes the private public and challenges the image of the ‘ideal woman’ proposed by the society.

Key words:- Privacy, confessions, madness, resistance.

​Understanding dynamics of population and immigration problem in Assam : A geographical analysis using census data base integrated with GIS 

​Prasanta Kr. Gogoi

​The proliferation of GIS and desktop mapping packages in the last decade has brought GIS technology as an indispensable tool for planners, decision makers and administrators. When we look at major forces of the 21st century like population growth, economic development and consumption of natural resources, we see that all of them have a spatial component. Many corporates store large volumes of data in an RDBMS for quick retrieval and easy maintenance. Data produced by Census is a primary source of information needed for effective development, planning and monitoring of population, socio-economic and environmental trends. Though stored in databases, this data has a spatial component inherently associated with it. The census database contains a lot of attribute information which can be linked to spatial units by spatial referencing. In this paper an attempt has been made to discuss the development of a utility for visualizing spatial data such as census using embedded GIS technology. To analyze census data in an efficient manner, the features of databases are being viewed spatially so that the underlying pattern can be observed. The solution is to store the non-spatial data in a database and relate it to a spatial layer which is stored in a GIS supported format like shapefiles The spatial data can be visualized in a number of ways that enhance the user’s understanding and interpretation of the data, like comparing multiple attributes of a feature by depicting the attributes as elements of pie charts or bar charts. In addition, one can compare one feature to another by the relative size of each feature’s chart. Features can also be classified based on attributes or symbolized with unique attribute values. Polygons can be filled with a dot density proportional to attribute values. This is an ideal solution for users who have database applications​ and want to add a spatial component with a few GIS operations. GIS thematic maps on census data have been integrated for better understanding the North-East India in general and Assam in particular. Published census raw data have been represented spatially or Geographically (through Maps) for planning, decision making and implementing govt. policies accurately. Furthermore, this paper covers the study of dynamics of Scheduled Caste (S.T) and other population groups especially Muslims since post independence period by applying GIS.

​​Key words : GIS, Thematic Maps, Spatial attributes, Shapefiles.

Sexism in English and Assamese : A quasi-experimental Study

​Papori Rabha and Akkas Ali Ahmed 

​Sexism or gender-bias in language is one of the major issues of sociolinguistics. It has become a political problem in modern society, where the concept of equal right, respect and position for the sexes is constitutionally instituted. Even though there is a high rising of feminist consciousness in modern, sensitive society, we see that women are always put under discrimination by all kinds of concrete and abstract dominances.The language is made a form to discriminate women, who are always taken to be inferior to men. The trace of sexism is mostly observed in words and proverbs of the language, irrespective of whether English or Assamese. If we go back to history, the reason behind it is the concept of society following conventions with usual normalcy. Attitudes of human beings in the society are solely held responsible. But, whatever or whoever is responsible, it is the call of the hour to think out the burning problem through systematic studies. The present paper is an attempt to study the possible sexism (i.e. gender bias) in English and Assamese. English, having the status of official, associate language of our country, is the lingua-franca of the world. Assamese is an Indo-Aryan language and it is the mother tongue of the Assamese, who live in Assam, one of the north eastern states of India. ​

​Key words : gender-bias, feminist consciousness, sexism in language, social conventions

Civil Society: It’s Role in Resolving Conflicts with special reference to Assam  

​Baby Paul

Conflict is an extremely complicated, multi-faceted phenomenon which has occurred throughout history, and will likely continue as long as mankind exists. Indeed, conflict negatively affects all aspects of society- not only does it destroy buildings and societies, but it also leaves surviving individuals and communities with deep wounds that can last a lifetime. Many efforts have been employed around the world to build peace following a conflict. Some interventions have proven quite successful, while others have not. Notably, civil society involved in broader peace building processes is a pillar of democratic system and, as such, plays important role in democracy and good governance for pre- and post-conflict societies. This paper examines the role of civil society groups in the peace process with special reference to India’s Northeast Assam. India’s Northeast has been the theatre of the earliest and longest lasting insurgency in the country. This paper reviews the diverse roles played by civil society groups and their initiatives in the region in managing conflicts and concludes with recommendations for overcoming some of their limitations. Throughout the article, it highlights the important role that civil society plays in conflict peace building efforts. Otherwise, it will be impossible to break the vicious circle of war and peace.​

Key words: civil society, conflicts, peace-building.

​Policy Perspectives on Inclusive Education in India: A New Step towards Universalization of School Education including Children with Special Needs

Runjun Kalita 

Inclusive education is an important aspect with regard to quality oriented universal school education for including the children with disabilities or special needs. Inclusive education promotes quality and equity in education as it includes every individual with disregard towards gender, disability, behaviour problems, family background, poverty etc. This article focuses on the policy initiatives taken by the Government of India and the responsibilities to be taken by government as well as schools and society for promoting inclusion in mainstream education. It also discusses the barriers involved in the process of general school education inclusive in nature and provides some strategies for promoting inclusive principles and setting in mainstream education.

Key words: Inclusive education, barriers and strategies, disabled.

Health Scenario of ‘Tea Tribe’ In Nagaon District of Assam

​Bismita Bora

Tea plantation in Assam mainly depends on the ‘Tea Tribe’ community. The health condition of the ‘Tea Tribe’ of Assam in general and of Nagaon district in particular is generally found to be affected by the prevailing physicoclimatic conditions, nature of work, housing facilities, sanitation etc. provided to the workers. The facilities provided by the garden authorities are far from satisfactory. As a result of this, ‘Tea Tribe’ have been suffering from a number of diseases and are malnourished. Apart from this, their traditional beliefs and some social evils also influence health of these people. This paper inquires about the prevailing condition related to health, viz. common diseases, protection measures at the time of disease, health care facilities, social evils of the ‘Tea Tribe’ in Nagaon district.

Key words : Sanitation, malnourishment, addiction

Population Growth, Resource Uses and Environmental Changes: A Case Study on Srimala Village in Nagaon District, Assam

Parag Das

Environmental changes can be defined as a change or disturbance of the environment caused by human influence or natural ecological processes. Man, resource uses and environmental changes are inter-related because when in any part of the world, population increases there must be increase in the use of resources and resulted changes in the natural environment. The premise of this paper is based on this theoretical base and tries to see these interrelated factors impact on a ST village named Lowphulabori under Raha developmental block of Nagaon district. The main objective of the paper was to identify the negative impact of population growth in the natural environment of the study area in terms of uses of natural resources by the village people. In this study both primary and secondary data have been used. Thirty (30) village households from Lowphulabori village were selected for the sample of the study and they were selected through purposive sampling technique from the study area. For collecting data, a self prepared interview schedule was used by investigators. The interview schedule is consisted of 25 items related to pattern of resource uses in their day today life. The collected data was analysed by using simple statistics like percentage and mean only. The finding of the study reveals that population growth as well as unsystematic use of resources was the key causes of environmental changes of the Lowphulabori village.

Key Words: Population Growth, Resource Use and Environmental Changes, ST People

Some Aspects of Utility Pattern and Ecological Characteristics of the Jal Jari Beel of Borchung Village in Nagaon District, Assam

​Bikeson Hanse

Beels are distributed according to their geographical characteristics of a region. Beels or wetlands serve as a vital lifeline for the particular local community. It also maintains the ecological balance of the any area. This paper would like to highlight some aspects of utility pattern and ecological characteristics of Jal Jari beel of Borchung village, and changing utility pattern and present status of the beel. In this paper the methodology adopted is exploratory and descriptive research; data have been collected from the primary and secondary sources.​

​Key words: Beel, Ecological character, utility pattern.

Fairy tales : The Voices of ‘Fairy(ies)’ Within Her Tales 

​Neeruka Angom

​Within the locus of fantasy writing in literature, fairy tales hold a specific niche of its own. From the lands of the ‘wonderland’ to the majestic castles, the tales have their own significance. We find the charming prince and the damsel in distress. In popular folk tales the voice of the fairy is dominated by the acts of the male characters as they emerge winners. This paper is an attempt to examine the portrayal of the ‘fairy’ as self-sufficient / self-assertive amid their reliance on the ‘external rescues’ by the prince or her father. It seeks to revisualise the role of the female main characters in the story. Moreover, it is an attempt to relook at some of the potency of the tales such as romanticisation of marriage or the” willing bondage to father and the prince, and her restriction to heart and nursery.”

​​Key words: patriarchal gaze, victim/ victimiser, fairy, fantasy. 

​Reflection of the sufferings of Indian Peasants in the novels of Munchi Premchand : An analysis of ‘Godan’

Gitamala Bora 

Munchi Premchand, with whom the beginning of modern Hindi novel started, is known as the father of Hindi novel. His novels, short stories are endowed with universal appeal because of which almost all his writings are translated into all Indian languages. The novels of Premchand are enriched with the presentation of Indian rural economy and social system which have made his novels universal. He is the true voice of Indian suppressed people. ‘Godan’, one of his most popular novels, gives us a true picture of an Indian peasant family, overburdened with loan. Hunger, loan, sickness, domestic problems etc. are the unavoidable features of the peasants, because of which they have to end up their lives. This paper is a humble attempt to analyse all these features of ‘Godan’ which has made it a classic.​

Key-words: Peasants, sufferings, loan, Indian rural economic system.

​Use of Figures of Speech in Kalidas’s Raghubangsha: A Critical Analysis 

Malavika Baruah 

​Mahakavi Kalidas is one of the greatest poets whose poetic style and technique has received accolades. His apt handling of figures of speech for rendering aesthetic beauty to his poetic work and for making meaning explit is unparallel in the annals of history of poetry. His immortal creation Raghuvansa is one of the gems in the treasure house of poetry. In it he has used successfully various figures of speech to bring desired effect. This paper aims at discussing application of different figures of speech in Raghubangsha and to what extent.

Key-words: Poetic style, poetic power, figures of speech.

​A critical analysis of the character of Phuleswari in Uttam Baruah’s play ‘Bar-raja Phuleswari’

​Sahin Jafri 

​Play-writing is a difficult art and always holds a distinct place in literary art. In Assamese literature play-writing is not new. But writing plays taking plot from Assam’s history is hardly one hundred years old. In post independence period Uttam Baruah established himself as a successful historical play writer whose Bar-raja Phuleswari (1972) has received critical claim. The dramatist in it has shown how an ordinary but ambitious woman could become the queen of Siba Singha, the ahom Raja and turned out to be the most powerful queen in the annals of Ahom history. Her hateful attitude towards the Vaishnavas under the machinations of Brahminical power, Siba Singha’s helplesness before her are the stuff which have been used by Baruah while writing the play. Baruah has also explored the psychology of Phuleswari. This paper aims at discussing how Baruah has been successful in the play in presenting the character of Phuleswari

Key-words: Buranjee, vaishnava, kareng.​​