RITES FOR THE DECEASED THROUGH VEDIC TEXTS
Akhila Ranjan Parhi
The ancient Vedic society preserves a rich tradition of paying homage to the ancestors through a regular systematic manner and thereby keeps up a strong socio cultural bond for generation to come. To uphold this glory, several ritual practices are being undertaken. Manuals of these rites are laid down by the ancient social thinkers to provide norms and regulations for building an ideal society for all round prosperity. As the scope of these manuals is very vast covering many centuries, study here is restricted to post-death rites of domestic Vedic schools only. Among all domestic schools, Asvalayana domestic school focuses the post-death rites in most extensive manner giving way to a lot of latter treatises which made these rites elaborate and systematic for generations. It is interesting to note that, the manuals of the Asvalayana Grihya Sutras bring to light the preservation of a rich heritage with a process of several assimilation, interpolation, deletion and accumulation bringing a synthesis among different Diasporas of different times. The ritual practice of Vedic people originates in Sutra literature of Vedangas and continues to flourish till the Smriti literature making it a huge bulk for study.
Key words: veda, rishi, mantra, sutras, pitrus, sraddha, etc.
AMITAV GHOSH'S THE GLASS PALACE A SCATHING CRITIQUE ON BRITISH COLONIALISM
Md. Maidul Islam
Amitav Ghosh's The Glass Palace is a tale of the British Empire in the south-east corner of Asia. It is a rare and imaginative telling in which the life of the colonized-their life experiences, voices, hopes and aspirations as well as their formative moments find expression prominently. It tells the complexities of lives constituted within the ageing British Empire linking the pre-war years to events and chains of significance going back to the Indian Mutiny of 1857 and forward to the retreat of colonialism signaled by the Second World War. Here Ghosh focuses on the difficult state of the colonized, a beleaguered group of races inhabiting the British occupied territories that have been virtually reduced to puppets in the hands of the colonizers. It thus gives a gritty substance to the formation of anti-colonized politics and the rise of nationalizations through the experiences, connections, and growth of characters scattered across this south-east corner of Asia. ?
Key words: Colonizers, Colonized, Nationalism, Resources, Exploitation, British Empire, South East Asia.
FUNDING AND UTILIZATION PROCESS OF RURAL ROAD CONSTRUCTION IN ASSAM
Ganga Rani Das
The road sector in Assam has seen significant changes in recent years. The focus of the government, the technology in use, the number of participants from the private sector and the quality of roads that are being built all indicate a qualitative transformation in this sector. Previously, the road construction and maintenance was the sole responsibility of the government. But in case of rural road, till today, no investment from private sector is seen. As road is a public good, it is difficult to price it. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to examine the various financing structures that have been observed in Assam in respect of rural road construction.
Key-words : structure, construction, development.
SOCIAL CHANGE IN NINETEENTH CENTURY GOALPARA
Diganta Kumar Boroowa
The nineteenth century witnessed slow yet significant changes in the society and economy of Goalpara District. These changes resulted from the impact of British contact with the region, and subsequent interplay of political, economic and social forces within the society. While understanding these changes, it should be borne in mind that the impact of British rule had been varied and uneven depending on the economic and socio-cultural peculiarities of the region; the experiences of each regional community of Indian society have been different. The present study is an inquiry into the structural transformation that took place in Goalpara society during the nineteenth century. The society of Goalpara had undergone radical changes, through a process of both acceleration and retardation, as a result of the impact of alien political, economic, judicial, cultural and social systems imposed by the British. Social change in Goalpara district, hence, can be largely attributed to exogenous factors. It endeavors to locate the impact of the British rule on this region of India. This paper analyses social change on the basis of specific criteria which are being accepted as fruitful indices for objective examination of the transition of a society from one stage to another. These indices help us to distinguish the traditional society of Goalpara which existed prior to the coming of the British from a modern society.
"THE CONCEPT OF 'MAN' IN DIFFERENT INDIAN THOUGHTS"
Mrs. Rupshree Devi
The Indian concept of man is that man is a combination of 'mind', 'body' and 'spirit'. It is based on the realization that it is man who can shape his own destiny. Man is the measure of all things. Everything concerning man depends on man himself. So, man is responsible for his own deeds. Man is not aware how he is involved in the cycle of karma. He can simply apprehend that all living beings are in the grip of beginningless karma, which appears in the garb of names and forms in the world.
Key-words : Prithvim, Tyajet, Sattvika, Jnata, Jneya.
ISSUES AND STATUS OF SECONDARY LEVEL TEACHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS OF ASSAM
Sewali Borah, Bimal Charan Swain & Tapan Kumar Basantia
Teachers are responsible for the grand success of our education system. Since teacher education is meant for preparing the teachers, so, the success of our education system ultimately rests on the success of our teacher education. Secondary level teacher education holds a key position among different levels of teacher education ( pre primary level teacher education, primary level teacher education etc.), since secondary level teacher education takes the responsibility for preparing teachers for our school education in general and secondary school education in specific. As the secondary level teacher education institutions are the instruments / agencies for implementation of the secondary level teacher education programmes, so, the quality of secondary level teacher education institutions determines the quality of secondary level teacher education programmes. For making secondary level teacher education institutions qualitative and successful, it is imperative to analyze the existing status and issues of secondary level teacher education institutions. In the light of these themes, the present paper explores the status and issues of secondary level teacher education institutions with special reference to status and issues of secondary level teacher education institutions of Assam. In this paper, vivid discussions have been made on these points: signifying secondary level teacher education institutions; historical development and existing status of secondary level teacher education institutions of Assam; quality issues of secondary level teacher education institutions of Assam; and quality improvement strategies for secondary level teacher education institutions of Assam.
Key words : Teacher education, Secondary level, Assam.
RAUWOLFIA : THE HERBAL HEALER
Rauwolfia popularly known as Sarpagandha or snakeroot, Rauwolfia serpentina is gifted with unique serpentine roots that have remarkable medicinal properties. References to snakeroot have been found in ancient Indian medical texts dating back to 600 BC. Having held a special place in Indian system of medicine for centuries, Rauwolfia gained world-wide attention in the 1940s, as active constituents in its root extract were realized to be highly effective in providing relief to various disorders of the central nervous system while being valuable in lowering blood pressure.
Key words : Reserpine, seditive, hypertension, anxiety, blood pressure, alkaloids etc.
TRIBAL CULTURE AND SOCIETY IN THE LIGHT OF ONE NOVELS
Titan Rudra Paul and Subrata Roy
Reang community loses all charan and colour without its communion with nature. Almost all cultural aspects including different rites and customs, religious rituals, prejudices etc. of the community are associated with nature. Material or event ideological elements of this community are intertwined with nature and its various aspects. Bimal Singha, a celebrated writer of Tripura, in his novel Langtarai has portrayed the life of Reang community where he has depicted how the community lives close to nature and orients its life towards it. However, the novel also depicts how under the pressure of modernism Reang community too changes, losing some of its earlier practices dictated by nature.
Key-words : jhum, jungle, custom.
THE NATURE OF RURAL GOVERNANCE IN ASSAM….A SPECIAL STUDY ON BATADRAVA VILLAGE PANCHAYAT, NAGAON DISTRICT, ASSAM
The issues of governance has becoming a significant aspect of every state policy. At present in India the concept of rural governance has acquired a prominent position specially after the introduction of Panchayati Raj in the 73 rd amendment act. However it has been observed that through these institutions have started to function in all rural areas, the basic objective of involving the common people in the decision making process has failed to deliver. This study tries to focus about the nature of functioning of these rural institutions and pointing out what the weaknesses in this respect so that it can be nullified in the proper way.
Key words: Governance, regulatory, rural.
PSYCHO-SOCIAL AND EDUCATIONAL CHALLENGES OF HEARING IMPAIRED CHILDREN : A REVIEW OF REHABILITATION
Jahangir Hussain Alom
Hearing is the main corridor of acquisition of knowledge and experiences. It is one of the effective channels of experiencing taste of life because through hearing one can express his/her emotion and affection, and also can feel the condition of others. Hearing impairment refers to a loss or reduction in the ability to hear clearly due to problems of hearing mechanisms. In fact, hearing impairment is associated with three attributes, such as types of hearing loss, degree of hearing loss and configuration of hearing loss. Children with hearing impairment confront a number of challenges mostly in psycho-social and educational domains like depression, anxiety, poor self-esteem, poor personality, poor self-image, inferiority complex, social rejection, poor educational performances etc., which adversely affects in their communication and holistic development. Early detection, timely intervention and rehabilitation are imperatives to flourish and develop the necessary skills among the children to adapt in society effectively. In the light of these issues in the present paper discussion has been made on meaning and classification of hearing impairment, psycho-social and educational challenges of hearing impairment, and psycho-social and educational rehabilitation of children with hearing impairment.
Key Words: Hearing impairment, Psycho-social challenges, Educational challenges, Rehabilitation.
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND CATALYTIC ACTIVITY OF Cr LOADED ZSM-5
Mithun Nandi and Anup K. Talukdar
ZSM-5 zeolite with silica alumina ratio of 100 was synthesized by hydrothermal method. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy. XRD patterns of the samples confirm the formation of ZSM-5 zeolite phase with high crystallinity.Chromium was loaded into ZSM-5 by impregnation technique. The catalytic activity of the prepared catalysts were studied by carrying out the esterification reaction of n-butanol with acetic acid. The impregnated sample was found to be very active at temperatures 100°C with conversion maxima of 66% and 100% selectivity for n-butylacetate.
Key words : ZSM-5, esterification reaction.
A FAMILY OF CHOICE: A READING OF BARBARA KINGSOLVER'S THE BEAN TREES
Pubali Bora Kashyap
The main objective of this chapter 'A family of choice: A reading of Barbara Kingsolver's The Bean Trees' is to question the validity of America's definition of an ideal family. As the meaning of family has undergone changes towards the end of the twentieth century and the in the early years of the twenty-first century, it is very difficult to determine and understand the meaning of 'family'. While the traditional American family is considered the ideal family, the unconventional or non- traditional family is seen as broken and viewed with contempt. The aim of this paper is to question America's definition of an ideal family by taking into analysis Barbara Kingsolver's novel The Bean Trees (1988). Although the book is usually read as a feminist text because of Kingsolver's portrayal of her feminist beliefs and the rejection of constrictions of her characters, this paper proposes a reading that reinforces the idea that The Bean Trees (1988) is a novel about family, identity and belongingness. The novel deals with the fact that the identity of the protagonist is shaped by familial relationships which are not based on structure, biology or law but on emotions.
Keywords: family, traditional, non-traditional, identity, belongingness, Barbara Kingsolver, The Bean Trees.
REMEMBERING THE "TIME BEFORE": FUNCTION OF MEMORY IN MARGARET ATWOOD'S DYSTOPIAN NOVEL THE HANDMAID'S TALE
Margaret Atwood deploys a female narrative voice in The Handmaid's Tale, to articulate the dystopian realities of the totalitarian Gilead regime. The regime embodies the dangerous potential of extreme religious fanaticism, militarism, and sexism. A logic of memory is used to highlight the contrast between the self-enclosed dystopian world of the Gilead Republic and the everyday life of the pre-Gilead days. This paper attempts to explore the emergence of dystopian fiction as a response to humanity's frantic search for fixed foundations. Dystopian fiction qualifies as a zone where possibilities for alternate realities are explored, resulting in the creation of nightmarish worlds, as that of the Gilead Republic, and Atwood's The Handmaid's Tale can be examined as an important contemporary exercise in this context.
Key-words : Dystopia, evangelist, utopian.
NATURE AND SELF: A STUDY OF JAHNAVI BARUA'S REBIRTH
In the writings of North East India, issues like insurgency have formed the backdrop for most of the time. It is no doubt true that the political situation have caused havoc in this region. But to attribute the whole lot of literature produced from this region as based on violence cannot be justified. Because the recurring theme that emerges through their writings is inclined towards folk and oral culture to a large extent. Also prevalent are other aspects like search for identity, nature writings, etc. among others. Here an attempt has been made to study Jahnavi Barua's Rebirth: A Novel, published in 2010 that has attracted many readers for the depth handling of a woman's mind. A representative writer from the Northeast region of India- Assam, Barua's narrative abounds in the description of natural sights and sceneries of the region. The closeness with nature is possible to establish in such a semiurban or rural set up rather than the busy and mechanic urban life. The life of the protagonist- Kaberi is affected by the imbalance of rural and urban space, leading to the critical state of her mind. As a result of this disparity, her life takes on a new turn. Barua's handling of the woman-mind runs parallel to the effect that the surroundings have on her protagonist. This is possibly because Nature has always been associated with femininity. In this paper an attempt has been made to consider the shift in space, from rural to urban, and analyse how it relates to the transition of the protagonist in terms of individuality. While explaining the shift in Kaberi's personality, her dependence on Nature has to be mentioned. It may not be incorrect to say that her growth as an individual is affected by her rapport with Nature. This paper, hence, aims to study the novel in an ecofeminist perspective.
Key words: Barua, North-East, Eco-feminism, Space, Self, Nature, Individuality
THE STILWELL ROAD AND INDIA'S LOOK EAST POLICY
K. Kalita and M. Gogoi
India's Look East policy is a significant step towards the economic, social and geo-political development of India in general and the North -East India in particular. The opening of new vista of dialogues and regional co-operation with South- East Asian countries after 90s pave the path of hope of inclusive growth and development of the sub-continent. However, the infrastructure development, particularly the land connectivity with the countries of the region is a decisive dimension of the success of India's Look East policy. The reopening of Stilwell Road in future could boost up the economy and prosperity of the region. This paper highlights the importance of Stilwell Road in the success of India's Look East policy
A GEOINFORMATICS BASED ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACTS OF THE BRICK INDUSTRY IN THE LAND USE PATTERN OF A FEW SELECTED VILLAGES IN THE SONAPUR AREA OF KAMRUP METROPOLITAN DISTRICT, ASSAM
Nilotpal Kalita and Parag Dutta
In developing countries like India where 70 % of the population is dependent on agriculture gradual declination of agricultural land for various developmental activities leads to serious economic problems especially for the village peoples. Although bricks are necessary for constructional activities but the gradual increase of the kilns can result into the shortage of cultivable land and thus, in long run, hampers the economy. The paper examines on the growth and development of brick industries in a few selected villages of the Sonapur area of Assam and how the land uses for it changes these villages, using geoinformatics as a tool. Key Words: Geoinformatics, Brick Industry, Landuse Change.
ROMANTICISM IN MICHAEL MADHUSUDHAN DUTTA: A CRITIQUE OF HIS SONNET, 'COMPOSED DURING AN EVENING WALK'
The poet Michael Madhusudan Dutta is essentially a romantic poet. Since all romantic poetry is basically imaginative poetry that leads to an ulterior reality of the poet's dream, the poet Madhusudan's poetry proves no exception. The paper is a humble attempt to make a comprehensive analysis of the poet's sonnet, 'Composed During an Evening Walk' to show that the poet Madhusudan, popularly known as the 'Milton of India', is fundamentally a romantic poet like the Romantic poets of the 19th Century England. The sonnet under discussion shows that the poet Madhusudan is charmed by the romantic beauty of the evening, when the sun has died down behind the western horizon. Small pieces of cloud, glowed by the rays of the setting sun float on the vast blues expanse. The similes, used in the sonnet acquire the metaphoric force on account of what may be called hyperbolic fringe. The similes transcend the commonplace logic by introducing similarity hardly apparent and entail a special exercise of the imagination which is very common in the poetry of P.B. Shelley and other Romantic poets of England. The poet's romantic image- making very often verges mysticism.
Key Words: Romanticism, Mysticism, Romantic image-making.
THE ROLE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN TOURISM WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ASSAM
The present paper is an attempt to find out the relevance of English language in tourism sector. It claims that one of the most vital aspects of Tourism sector is the communication between the people associated with this business and the tourists. The study mainly refers to tourism in Assam. It claims that though Assam is one of the most beautiful and eye-catching region of India with many wild life sanctuaries, historical monuments and numerous waterways with falls and rapids yet tourism sector in the state is mainly dependent on pilgrimage tourists visiting Kamakhya temple only. In order to make them aware of the other available tourist places of the State, proper attention need to be taken by the tourism department. For this purpose, pamphlets, brochures, posters, throwaways, leaflets etc. need to be published which must be convincing to the tourist in its outward form and attractive pictures. In addition to this, it is important that the communication with the tourists should be in flawless English.
Key-Words : Tourism, Guide, Brochure, Pamphlet.
TEACHER GUIDED REFLECTIVE LEARNING APPROACH: AN EFFECTIVE APPROACH FOR LEARNING AT SCHOOL STAGE
Teacher guided reflective learning means reflective learning guided by the teacher. Teacher guided reflective learning approach is a reflective approach of learning which is guided by the teacher. In teacher guided reflective learning approach, focus is given on what students are learning rather than what the teacher is teaching. In this approach, teacher functions as a stimulator of curiosity, resource person, and a facilitator of knowledge construction. Students/ learners take the responsibility of their own learning. Teacher provides an encouraging environment in which students are comfortable with what is not yet known to them and feel at ease to share their ideas with their peers and teachers. It facilitates students to construct, reconstruct and deconstruct their present knowledge relating it to their previous knowledge. There is no domination of teacher and learning takes place in the collaborative environment and experiences. Since children/ learners actively participate in the process of learning, their learning becomes meaningful and permanent. In the light of these themes, in the present paper, discussions have been made on concept of teacher guided reflective learning approach, difference between teacher guided reflective learning approach and traditional approach of learning, learner's position in teacher guided reflective learning approach, teacher's position in teacher guided reflective learning approach, salient features of teacher guided reflective learning approach and potential benefits of teacher guided reflective learning approach.
Key words: Teacher guided reflective learning approach, learning and school.
EXPLORATION OF PSYCHOLOGY : A STUDY OF RABINDRANATH'S 'GOPAN TALDESH'
Diversity of story elements is the trade mark of Rabindranath's short stories. Most of the short stories of Rabindranath are realistic in nature yet then one cannot deny his talent in creating ghost stories or stories replete with supernatural elements. The latter category of stories should not be seen only from the angle of horror elements contained in it. These stories two contain deep psychological workings of the characters. Short stories like 'Kankal' 'Nishithe' and 'Manihara' all such surrealistic stories of Rabindranath that delve deep into the psychology of central characters. Plots of these stories unfold various complexities in their minds and their depraved mentality at the root of which lies their desire for sexual gratification. This paper aims at discussing inner working of the characters of some of Rabindranath's short stories that read like ghost stories.
Key-words : horror, ghost, psychology, sex.
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL LIFE OF THE RAJBONGSHIR IN THE LIGHT OF DEBESH ROY'S SHART STORIES
Social custom means niceties and self-imposed rules and regulations necessary for living in the society as decent human beings. There is no compulsion in observing social customs, there is no state law that binds its citizens to observe it. Yet these are observed to make life peaceful and colourful. There are two types of social customs; customs guided by religious sentiments and customs observed as a part of social discipline. In this paper, discussion has been made to show social that is Debesh Ray's stories how social discipline in Rajbonsi community of Tistatar is enforced by social customs. These are reflected through social institutions of and social and cultural events observed by the society.
Key words : Custom, Society, Culture.
'THE INHERITANCE OF 'CHARYAGEETI' IN BENGALI RELIGION AND LITERATURE
The discovery and publicity of 'Charyageeti' have created enough confusion regarding its origin. To justify the claim that it originated in Bengal we should keep in mind that 'Gourbanga' was known as 'Bangagmagadh' during the time of its drafting. And during that period the Buddhist monasteries were mainly established in Barendrabhum of Gourbanga, the places of Bickrampur and Chattagram. Sompur (presently Paharpur), Devikot (now Paschim Dinajpur), Bickrampur Bihar, Jaddatdal, Panditbihar of Chattagram and Pandubihar of Rarh area etc. which were known for the practice of Buddhist Scriptures and Tantra (a kind of orthodox practice of Scriptures). It has to be metioned here that, the life history of the Shajiya Siddhaharayas from 'Charyageeti' proves Gourbanga as their centre of work. Moreover, literature always presents the mood of a particular place in a dominant way and this mood differentiates the literature of one place to the other. From the pre-historic period Gourbanga was the centre of Tantra and Yoga practices. In Bengal these practices could be seen vigorously. Almost every Bengali religion and her national literature have been pervaded by these influences. The history of evolution in terms of liberal practice of this region is not detached from the main stream history. This significant mark of Bengali literature proves that 'Charyageeti' is the inseparable property of Gourbanga. My research, THE INTHERITANCE OF 'CHARYAGEET' IN BENGALI RELIGION AND LITERATURE is a humble approach to find out the influences of 'Charyageeti' over the Bengali Literature of later periods.
Key-words : Charyageeti, Tantra, Mantra, Gaurbanga
TWO PERSONALITIES OF ASSAM IN LITERARY PURSUITS : SANKARADEV AND LAKSHMINATH
Progress and publicity of a nation or a race is greatly done by its civilization and literature. A society's culture, thinking, ideals and views are taken forward with the help of literature. It is the literary pursuits of Sankaradeva and Lakshminath that made Assamese literature and many world literatures known to the people of the land. These two literary stalwarts made Assamese literature casual with many Indian literatures. The place that Caitanyadeb and Rabindranath Tagore hold in Bangla literature is also held by Sankaradeva and Lakshminath Bezbarooa in Assamese literature. This paper analyses the contribution of these two litterateurs to the cause of Assamese literature.
MAHASWETA DEVI IN THE LIGHT OF HER NOVELS : NEED OF THE AGE Shreyashi Sinha
Should we appreciate a piece of literary art only from the point of view of its form, style, language or technique ? Or it must be judged in the light of history ? The postulation that realist literature and history, both at the level of raw material and narrative praxis exhibit a close affinity has attained an axiomatic truth. Mahasweta Devi's literary world is informed by a deconstructive historiographic discourse that insents within her writings the hitherto 'de-historicised' subaltern voice. In her novel she has portracted the marginalised, oppressed and deprived section of the society in her 'Aranyer Adhikar' she has discussed how the sons of the soil are uprooted and lose their right to living by a machination grown out of the nexus between the state authority and middlemen. Mahaseta Devi's mediation of the subaltern is underlined by an urge to understand, interpret and make sense of subaltern consciousness through present re-appropriation of the past.
FOLK CULTURE OF BARAK VALLEY IN THE LIGHT OF GLOBALIZATION : WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE FOLK RITUALS RELATED TO CULTIVATION
'Globalization' is the most commonly known word of our modem life. We cannot deny the effect of it. It is not only effecting our life but also effecting our culture and heritage. As a result our Folk culture specially Folk Rituals are affected by it. It has taken our folk rituals to the threat of extinction. The people, who are fully dependent on cultivation are now deviated by other sources. But we have to accept the changes that are being made by Globalization. Even though we can take some measures to conserve and protect our folk-culture. This article aims to through light in this respect.